National Philosophy of Education
Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan outlines all the terms, ideas and principles related to education in our country.
It combines the goals, policies and educational practices to form a consistent, clear and logical entity.
National Philosophy of Education
Formulation of the National Philosophy of Education
Sparked off in 1979, which concentrates on human development. This came from an excerpt on “Economic development is very rapid in today’s world. The same goes for social developments as well... we are faced with different types of elements both from within and without... most of such elements are good, but they come from outside, and we are not very comfortable with them. Therefore, we face another challenge that is human development.”
(Cabinet Report, 1979:226)
The Cabinet Committee recommended that human development be given due emphasis that “The human development must also from discipline aspect … important to be honest and dedicated to their work, can think and act wisely … guided by a respectful character ... need to be aligned to the aims of human development.”
(The Cabinet Report, 1979:227)
And thus the combination and integration of Rukunegara, New Economic Policy and the National Education Policy in inevitable.
a) Rukunegara (National Principles)
Also known as de facto pledge of allegiance instituted by the royal proclamation on August 31, 1970. The government effort to promote racial unity, balance and stability amongst citizens of Malaysia in reaction to a serious racial riot known as May 13 incident in 1969. So it goes in English the five principles:
i) Belief in God (Kepercayaan kepada Tuhan)
ii) Loyalty to King and Country (Kesetiaan kepada Raja dan Negara)
iii) Upholding the Constitution (Keluhuran perlembagaan)
iv) Rule of Law (Kedaulatan Undang-Undang)
v) Good behavior and morality (Kesopanan dan Kesusilaan)
b) New Economic Policy
Another effort Malaysian government to foster national unity by narrowing the divide in several sectors like economy, social, culture, housing and etc.
The various development plans under DEB using two-pronged approach:
i) eradicate poverty by creating more employment opportunities for all, irrespective of ethnicity
ii) to restructure the country’s economy thus eliminating the identification of ethnicity with economic function
c) National Education Policy
National Education Blueprint
In 2006, the National Education Blueprint 2006–10 was released. The Blueprint set a number of goals, such as establishing a National Pre-School Curriculum, setting up 100 new classes for students with special needs, increasing the percentage of single-session schools to 90% for primary schools and 70% for secondary schools, and decreasing class sizes from 31 to 30 students in primary schools and from 32 to 30 in secondary schools by the year 2010. The Blueprint also provided a number of statistics concerning weaknesses in education. According to the Blueprint, 10% of primary schools and 1.4% of secondary schools do not have a 24-hour electricity supply, 20% and 3.4% respectively do not have a public water supply, and 78% and 42% are over 30 years old and require refurbishing. It was also stated that 4.4% of primary students and 0.8% of secondary students had not mastered the 3Rs (reading, writing and arithmetic). The drop-out rate for secondary schools was given as 9.3% in urban areas and 16.7% in rural areas.
The Blueprint also aimed to address the problem of racial polarization in schools. Under the Blueprint, schools will hold seminars on the Constitution, motivational camps to increase cultural awareness, food festivals to highlight different ethnic cooking styles, and essay competitions on different cultural traditions. Mandarin and Tamil language classes will be held in national schools, beginning with a pilot project in 220 schools in 2007.
The Blueprint has been subject to some criticism. Academic Khoo Kay Kim has criticized the plan, saying: “We do not need this blueprint to produce excellent students. What
we need is a revival of the old education system... meaning the education
system we had before 1957. That was when we saw dedication from the teachers.
The Malaysian education system then was second to none in
National Education Blueprint: Snapshot
• The National Education Blueprint 2006-2010 TWO main thrusts are:
1) To complete to complete unfinished tasks laid out in the Eighth Malaysia Plan (2000-2005) that sought to provide everyone access to education and create a level playing field for all students
2) To exploit fully schools' potential by having clusters of excellence so as to enable teachers and students to raise the standard of the system of learning in the country to be world class
• The blueprint has SIX core strategies to further strengthen the national education system:
• 1) build the nation and people—To give focus to the building of the nation and its people through education. The ministry aims to develop citizens from their early school stage to be global and patriotic apart from appreciating and upholding the nation's cultural heritage and arts
• 2) Develop Human Capital—The ministry will give attention to value systems, disciplinary aspects, character, morals and resilience of students. This is to produce students who are competent in Science and Technology, innovative and creative and marketable.
• 3) Strengthening National Schools—The ministry will strengthen national schools (primary and secondary) so that they become the schools of choice. In connection with this, national schools will be adequately equipped with facilities, including ICT facilities and enough trained teachers
• 4) Narrow Education Gap—There shall be emphasis on narrowing education gaps between locations, school types, races, gender, socio-economic levels and students' capabilities. This is to ensure an across-the-board level playing field and check drop
• 5) Make Teaching a Prestigious Profession—This is to ensure the profession is respected and held in high regard in line with the trust and responsibility placed on it to build future generations
• 6) Make Excellence a Culture in Educational Institutions— Efforts will be made to make excellence a culture in educational institutions by forming "school clusters of excellence" that will be based on academic, co-curricular and sports achievements or
in specific fields
Analysis of National Philosophy of
Education with Reference
Analysis of National Philosophy of Education with Reference to Its Elements
Implications of National Philosophy of Education on
The National Philosophy of Education served as an enlightenment to provide guidance and course direction to all efforts on education.
Various factors that play important roles in the determination of the contents, aims and aspirations are as follows. These include economic, individual, international, political, religious and social factors.
Briefly explained are as below:
i) Religious factor: Islam is the official religion; other religions are free to embrace. Religious factors can be clearly identified in the following expression... “to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonic, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God”.
Social factor: The aim of achieving racial unity has
become one of the main objectives of National Philosophy of Educations stated
in the expression ..."to produce
Malaysian citizens who are capable of achieving a high level of personal
well-being to contribute to the betterment of the nation, family and
iii) Political factor: Racial unity was one of the basic considerations when planning up the National Philosophy of Education.
Economic factor: Malaysians who are
trained with special skills in various fields can assist in the development of
the national economy by upgrading their productivity. This was mentioned in
line with Economic factor related to National Philosophy of Education.
v) Individual factor: Potentials of individuals can be developed through the process of education. A well balanced and harmonious individual will always try to inculcate positive attitude, enjoy spiritual peacefulness and ever ready to face challenges in life. Individual's potentials cover all emotional, intellectual, physical and spiritual aspects. Integrating all potential of individuals will produce a holistic development that will produce balanced and harmonious citizens.
International factor: Education in
Roles of the National Philosophy of Education
i) assist to monitor the education policy so that all education activities and program would be implemented according to the spirit of National Philosophy of Education
ii) ensures there is no misunderstanding, ambiguity or dispute while implementing any education activities and program
iii) provides necessary guidance for educators to carry out their educational duties according to the spirit of National Philosophy of Education
iv) provides the policy and basic consideration for the planning of school curriculum, to design learning materials and determine strategies for teaching-learning activities
v) provides the policy and basic consideration to determine the objectives of National Education
vi) serves as an enlightenment to provide guidance and direction to all efforts used to develop and improve the national education
vii) serves as a reference to help educators to understand the national education system
Objectives of National Education
To produce knowledgeable, competent and responsible individuals to become useful Malaysian citizens. Mainly aimed for Malaysians to acquire the qualities:
- belief in and devoted to God
- be responsible to self, society, religion and nation
- possesses balanced and firmed personality
- practice tolerance so as to foster unity among people of various races
process of education,
- produce individuals who will be responsible and able to fulfill their duty as good and useful citizen
- produce individuals who will be progressive, skillful and competent in carrying out duties perfectly, with the aim to contribute towards the advancement and development of the nation
- produce individuals who will understand, accept and abide the democratic principles and laws of the Constitution
- produce individuals who will be loyal to the King and love the nation
- produce individual who understand and practice the Rukun Negara and possess tolerant attitude to foster unity among races
- reduce the gap in various fields through provision of adequate education facilities to the less fortunate groups
Essential elements in the National Philosophy of Education
of National Philosophy of Education
a) On School Tradition and Culture
- upgrading the existing facilities for pupils
- reorganize school activities to foster development of school culture
- changes in school learning environment would encourage pupils to develop intellectual potentials e.g. ICT
- co-curriculum activities added to foster unity
b) On Education Reform
- changes to style of administration and leadership from autocratic to democratic style
- routine, stereotype service changes to loving and emphatic type of service
- changes from technically rationally to reflective rationally
- teacher-oriented to change to student-centered
- knowledge-base teaching to integrated teaching program
c) On Roles of Teacher
- to educate pupils to become useful citizens of the future generation
- to educate pupils with skills of the generations
to act as agent of change and to bring
Created on Nov 12, 2010 and edited last 04 February, 2011 by [email protected]